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Study shows air-quality benefits of biodiesel in city buses

By Mineta National Transit Research Consortium | October 29, 2014

Do transit buses operating on biodiesel emit more or less particulate matter and gases than those using conventional diesel? The Mineta National Transit Research Consortium has released its latest peer-reviewed study based on laboratory and field experiments. Among other test results, Combustion Chemistry of Biodiesel for Use in Urban Transport Buses: Experiment and Modeling found that using biodiesel could effectively reduce the mass of particulate matter released in both hot and cold idle modes. Reduction in amount of particulate matter, number of elements and elemental carbon was observed, and the reduction is considered beneficial to promoting the clean air and human health. Principal co-investigators were Ashok Kumar, a professor and chairman of Civil Engineering at The University of Toledo, and Dong-Shik Kim, associate professor of chemical and environmental engineering at University of Toledo, working with the research team of Hamid Omidvarborna and Sudheer Kumar Kuppili. The free report can be downloaded here

Biodiesel has many advantages over regular diesel even in a very low blend percentage. The benefits include low emissions of particulate matter, combustion elements (mainly sulfur), elemental carbon, and carbon monoxide. Comparing types of elements from field and laboratory experiments showed what types of elements are emitted only from the fuels.

“Physical properties of biodiesel blends are very important during engine combustion,” Kumar said. “Higher viscosity causes reduced fuel leakage during injection, which drives an advance in injection timing and an increase of mass injection rate. Density of the fuels affects the start of injection, injection pressure, fuel spray characteristics, etc. When the fuel temperature changes and enters an engine with different temperatures (hot or cold), fuel acts differently and the emissions are different.”

In sum, it is recommended that governments consider using blends of biodiesel in urban and commercial vehicles to enhance the quality of air and to promote healthy living.

Among the report’s findings:

-Combustion temperature and pressure of biodiesel blends are linearly correlated with the portion of oxygen in biodiesel fuels. This information can be used to make proper blends of biodiesel with regular diesel.

-The high oxygen content of biodiesel improves the oxidation of soot precursors and limits soot mass growth, resulting in less particulate matter formation.

-The results also confirmed that better combustion, with less emission of elements, occurred in hot idle mode (i.e., when engines were fully warmed) rather than in cold idle mode (i.e., at morning start-up).

-The results indicated that the use of biodiesel could effectively reduce elemental carbon, which is considered more hazardous than organic carbon.

-Source apportionments of detected elements are done by using laboratory experiments as well as field experiments.

-The neural network method along with the kinetic models is implemented to help us better understand the particulate matter formation mechanisms and come up with more efficient and effective operating conditions to reduce PM emissions.

-Higher flash point of biodiesel, suggests that it is safer than other fuels, and storage process is easier.

 Chapters cover five different parts including introduction, literature review, methodology, results and discussion, and finally conclusion and future works. The 92-page report includes 20 figures and 16 tables.

The full report is available for free, no-registration; download at http://transweb.sjsu.edu/project/1146.html.

 

 

5 Responses

  1. James Rust

    2014-10-29

    1

    A far better solution for city buses is to use compressed natural gas as a fuel. The cost of natural gas must be less than half the cost of diesel fuel and there is no pollution from CNG. The city of Atlanta, GA went to CNG years ago with great improvement of air quality on city streets. We need to stop wasting tax dollars on biofuels that are not needed. James H. Rust, professor of nuclear engineering

  2. Peter Brown

    2014-10-29

    2

    Professor Rust, compressed natural gas will probably come from fracking, agreed? I live in California where that is a bad word, biodiesel does not require a conversion that is both costly and reduces the engine efficiency compared to CNG. Biofuels are needed as you know but cannot admit seeing as you are in the nuclear business. (I wrote my thesis on TMI since I was working for Canatom when the bubble burst)I agree that CNG would be nice if it was pulled from waste sources such as digesters and other tax intensive urban projects. In the meanwhile let's all be nice to each other and ensure that we stop green house gasses in any way we can.

  3. Peter Brown

    2014-10-29

    3

    Also, the grand daddy of all studies on RME usage in heavy trucks remains this study out of France and published long ago in a publication far far away: http://www.ebb-eu.org/studiesreports/AEA2006_GATEAU%2050%25%2012%20years%20FRANCE.pdf

  4. Dan Salamone

    2014-10-29

    4

    Peter Brown is correct, James Rust is wrong.

  5. Peter Brown

    2014-10-30

    5

    Dan, you are obviously a gentleman and a scholar. Thank you, what people have forgotten about biofuels is that they are renewable and that we are constantly finding new things to make them from. That not only drives prices down and forces the technology to adapt.Look at soy, in their heyday they were ideal, cheap and easy to grow and convert. Now because, in part, of us they are no longer cheap, so we found jatropha, waste palm oil, dead cows and water treatment sludge. The only thing the natural gas people can do is say, make another hole, make it deeper and pour more toxics down the tube. We are working on a fischer tropsch unit that will convert landfill methane into biofuels in smaller quantities. Unlike the oily boys we have options.

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